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Tyres > Help > Tyres Help > How is a tyre made?

How is a tyre made?

The production of a tyre involves a multitude of components derived from various ingredients, starting from the rubber tree all the way to the final product on the road.

It is a complex and multi-step process.

The first stage of tyre production involves processing high-quality raw materials in precise compositions to create composite materials, known as compounds.

These raw materials include natural rubber, natural and synthetic elastomers, fillers such as carbon black and silica compounds, steel, textiles, oils, and waxes.

Sulphur is also used to ensure optimal bonding of the carbon black molecules during vulcanisation.

Modern tyres can contain up to 16 different rubber compounds.

In the second stage, tyre components are produced, such as textile cord for the carcass ply(s), steel cord for the carcass ply(s) of light truck and truck tyres, and the bead core which ensures the tyre sits firmly on the rim.

The tread, sidewall, and inner layer are also produced using extruders and cutting machines.

The tyre structure is assembled by gradually placing the layers and components onto a cylindrical drum and rolling them tightly. This process is called "tyre winding" and requires high precision.

The vulcanisation process involves putting the tyre casing under high pressure at around 160°C to give it its final shape, tread, and appearance. The tyre is then removed from the mould and slowly cooled.

Finally, every tyre is subject to continuous quality control. Including visual inspections, optical control systems, and random sample tests. Sample tyres are tested with such techniques as X-ray or ultrasound examinations - to ensure that only tyres that pass all tests and inspections leave the factory.